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NDT APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS


LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING

APPLICATIONS :

  • Used on nonporous material
  • Can be applied to welds, tubing, brazing, castings, billets, forgings, aluminium parts, turbine blades and disks, gears

LIMITATIONS :

  • Need access to test surface
  • Defects must be surface breaking
  • Decontamination & precleaming of test surface may be needed
  • Vapour hazard
  • Very tight and shallow defects difficult to find
  • Depth of flow not indicated

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING

APPLICATIONS :

  • Ferromagnetic materials
  • Surface and slightly subsurface flaws can be detected
  • Can be applied to welds, tubing, bars, castings, billets, forgings, extrusions, engine components, shafts and gears

LIMITATIONS :

  • Detection of flaws limited by field strength and direction
  • Needs clean and relatively smooth surface
  • Some holding fixtures required for some magnetizing techniques
  • Test piece may need demagnetization which can be difficult for some shapes and magnetizations
  • Depth of flaw not indicated

ULTRASONIC TESTING

APPLICATIONS :

  • Metals, nonmetals and composites
  • Surface and slightly subsurface flaws can be detected
  • Can be applied to welds, tubing, joints, castings, billets, forgings, shafts, structural components, concrete, pressure vessels, aircraft and engine components
  • Used to determine thickness and mechanical properties
  • Monitoring service wear and deterioration

LIMITATIONS :

  • Usually contacting, either direct or with intervening medium required (e.g. immersion testing)
  • Special probes are required for applications
  • Sensitivity limited by frequency used and some materials cause significant scattering
  • Scattering by test material structure can cause false indications
  • Not easily applied to very thin materials

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

APPLICATIONS :

  • Metals, nonmetals, composites and mixed materials
  • Used on pyrotechnics, resins, plastics, organic material, honeycomb structures, radioactive material, high density materials, and materials containing hydrogen

LIMITATIONS :

  • Access for placing test piece between source and detectors
  • Size of neutron source housing is very large (reactors) for reasonable source strengths
  • Collimating, filtering or otherwise modifying beam is difficult
  • Radiation hazards
  • Cracks must be oriented parallel to beam for detection
  • Sensitivity decreases with increasing thickness

EDDY CURRENT

APPLICATIONS :

  • Metals, alloys and electroconductors
  • Sorting materials
  • Surface and slightly subsurface flaws can be detected
  • Used on tubing, wire, bearings, rails, nonmetal coatings, aircraft components, turbine blades and disks, automotive transmission shafts

LIMITATIONS :

  • Requires customized probe
  • Although non-contacting it requires close proximity of probe to part
  • Low penetration (typically 5mm)
  • False indications due to uncontrolled parametric variables

RADIOGRAPHY GAMMA

APPLICATIONS :

  • Usually used on dense or thick material
  • Used on all shapes and forms, castings, welds, electronic assemblies, aerospace, marine and automotive components
  • Used where thickness or access limits X-Ray generators

LIMITATIONS :

  • Radiation hazards
  • Cracks must be oriented parallel to beam for detection
  • Sensitivity decreases with increasing thickness
  • Access to both sides of test piece needed
  • Not as sensitive as X-Rays
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