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Welding Inspection @ ASME Section IX

Here are some important points in the ASME Section IX that are necessary to be taken in account for any welding inspection company that conducts welding inspection on fix equipment, process and power piping and above ground storage tank.

  1. A WPS is a written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production weld in accordance code requirement. It must be check by welding inspection company.
  2. The PQR documents what occurred during welding the test coupon and the result of testing of the coupon. It must be checked by welding inspection company.
  3. Procedure qualifications give suitability of weld for required mechanical properties (i.e., strength, ductility), while performance qualifications show the ability of the welder to deposit sound weld. This must be checked by welding inspection company.
  4. Each manufacturer or contractor shall maintain a record of the result obtained in welding procedure and welder/operator performance qualifications. The records shall be certified by manufacturer or contractor and accessible to the authorized inspector
  5. Tension test gives tensile value, while bend test shows ductility and soundness. Radiography also indicates soundness.
  6. Thus, Procedure Qualification: Tension test + Bend test
  7. Performance Qualification: Bend test or Radiography
  8. Tensile test for procedure qualification is passed if failure is in a)Weld metal at strength>= Base metal SMTS or b)Base metal at strength>= 95% of base metal SMTS. This must be checked by welding inspection company.
  9. When the welder or welding operator is qualified by radiography, the minimum length of coupon to be examined shall be 6 inch and shall include the entire weld circumference for pipe
  10. Production test with some condition is acceptable
  11. Bend test crack shall not exceed 1/8” in any direction. Radiography criteria are stricter than radiography for the job.
  12. P-numbers represent parent metal classification of similar composition and properties, i.e., similar strength and ductility.
  13. F-number gives similar usability aspects of filler material.
  14. A-number gives similar chem. comp. In“as welded” condition.
  15. Essential variables (EV), if changed require new procedure qualification. Non-essential variables (NEV) may be changed without new procedure qualification. But the procedure must be revised.
  16. Supplementary essential variables (SEV) are considered as (EV) only if there is impact strength requirement. Otherwise, they are “non-essential” variables.
  17. EV and SEV are included in PQR document. EV, SEV, and NEV are included in WPS document.
  18. PQR document gives data used in PQR test and test results, and cannot be revised.
  19. WPS gives parameters to be used in the production job and must be within ranges qualified by the PQR test.
  20. WPS may be revised within the EVs qualified. The NEVs can always be revised without affecting the validity of PQR.
  21. Only in SMAW, SAW, GTAW, PAW and GMAW (except short-circuiting) or the combination of them Radiography test can be used for welder performance qualification test, but there is an exception, except P-No.21 through P-No.25 and P-No.51 through P-No.53 and P-No.61 through P-No.62, welder making groove welds P-No.21 through P-No.25 and P-No.51 through P-No.53 metals with GTAW process may also be qualified by radiography.
  22. For welder performance qualification when the coupon has failed the visual examination, and immediate retest is intended to be done, the welder shall make two test coupon for each position which he has failed. If both test coupons passed the visual inspection one may be selected by the examiner for mechanical, in a similar way if mechanical test coupon has failed, two test coupons shall make by the welder, both test coupon shall pass the test.
  23. For welder performance qualification by radiography for immediate retest, two 6 inch plate and pipe examination shall include two pipes for a total of 12 inch of weld which shall include entire weld circumference
  24. When the welder has not welded with a process during  a period of 6 months or more, his qualification for that process shall expire
  25. Article IV should not be read directly, during the study of other articles specifically “welding variables procedures specifications” (QW-252 through 265 ) should refer to a specific paragraph in this article.
  26. For performance, 1G is flat, 2G is horizontal, 3G is vertical, and 4G is the overhead position. Pipe 5G qualifies 1G, 3G, and 4G, but pipe 6G qualifies all positions.